An employment class action lawsuit is a class action suit by employees against their employer. It is typically initiated by one or more employees who have been similarly harmed by the actions of their employer. An employment class action lawsuit allows the claims of each harmed employee to be resolved in one case, rather than every harmed employee filing their own lawsuit against the employer separately. Some common cases include employers refusing to pay for overtime work, employers not paying the federal minimum wage and workplace discrimination.

Like other types of class action lawsuit, the group is represented by one or more of the harmed employees, called a class representative, also known as the lead plaintiff. The class representative and their counsel carry on the case on behalf of the class, whose members have given their right to sue to the class representative. Other than the fact that it is carried out by employees, there is very little difference between the process of filing an employee class action lawsuit and other types of class actions lawsuits.